Element

body

Error Type

Potential

Guidelines

  • WCAG 2.0 (Level A)
    Guideline Group1.3 Ensure that information and structure can be separated from presentation
    Guideline SubgroupSuccess Criteria 1.3.1 Info and Relationships (A)
  • WCAG 2.0 (Level AA)
    Guideline Group1.3 Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.
    Guideline SubgroupSuccess Criteria 1.3.1 Info and Relationships (A)
  • WCAG 2.0 (Level AAA)
    Guideline Group1.3 Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in different ways without losing information or structure.
    Guideline SubgroupSuccess Criteria 1.3.1 Info and Relationships (A)

Requirement

Unicode right-to-left marks or left-to-right marks are used whenever the HTML bidirectional algorithm produces undesirable results.

Error

Unicode right-to-left marks or left-to-right marks may be required.

Short Description

Use Unicode right-to-left marks and left-to-right marks to override the HTML bidirectional algorithm when it produces undesirable results. This may be necessary, for instance, when placing neutral characters such as spaces or punctuation between different directional text runs.

How To Determine

Question Are Unicode right-to-left marks or left-to-right marks used whenever the HTML bidirectional algorithm produces undesirable results?
PASS Unicode right-to-left marks or left-to-right marks are used whenever the HTML bidirectional algorithm produces undesirable results.
FAIL Unicode right-to-left marks or left-to-right marks are not used whenever the HTML bidirectional algorithm produces undesirable results.

Steps To Check

Procedure

1. Check all text in the document.
2. Look for blocks of text where the reading direction changes.
3. Check if neutral characters such as spaces or punctuation occur adjacent to text that is rendered in the non-default direction.
4. Check if the HTML bidirectional algorithm would produce the wrong placement of the neutral characters
5. Check if the neutral characters are followed by Unicode right-to-left or left-to-right marks that cause neutral characters to be placed as part of the preceding characters.

Expected Result

1. Unicode right-to-left marks or left-to-right marks are used whenever the HTML bidirectional algorithm produces undesirable results.

Failed Result

1. Add Unicode right-to-left marks or left-to-right marks so the HTML bidirectional algorithm produces desirable results.

Examples

Pass Examples

Unicode right-to-left marking is present and HTML bidirectional algorithm produces desirable results.
?<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/xhtml; charset=UTF-8" />
<title>ATRC Testfile - Check #270.2 - Negative</title>
</head>
<body>

<p>The title is "????? ?????? ?????!&amp;rlm;" in Arabic.</p>

</body>
</html>

Fail Examples

Unicode right-to-left marking is missing from text and HTML bidirectional algorithm produces undesirable results.
?<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/xhtml; charset=UTF-8" />
<title>ATRC Testfile - Check #270.1 - Positive</title>
</head>
<body><p>The title is "????? ?????? ?????!" in Arabic.

</p></body>
</html>

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