Element

p

Error Type

Likely

Guidelines

  • New Guideline
  • WCAG 2.0 (Level A)
    Guideline Group1.3 Ensure that information and structure can be separated from presentation
    Guideline SubgroupSuccess Criteria 1.3.1 Info and Relationships (A)
  • WCAG 2.0 (Level AA)
    Guideline Group1.3 Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.
    Guideline SubgroupSuccess Criteria 1.3.1 Info and Relationships (A)
  • WCAG 2.0 (Level AAA)
    Guideline Group1.3 Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in different ways without losing information or structure.
    Guideline SubgroupSuccess Criteria 1.3.1 Info and Relationships (A)
  • WCAG SRWSD

Requirement

All p elements are not used as headers.

Error

p element may be misused (could be a header).

Short Description

All p element content must not be marked with either b, i, u, strong, font, em.

How To Determine

Question Should this text be marked as a header?
PASS Text is not a header, current markup is OK.
FAIL Text is a header, markup should change.

Steps To Check

Procedure

1. Check the contents of all p elements in the document.
2. Check if all the text contained by the p element is marked with presentational elements.
3. Presentational elements include the elements b, i, u, strong, span, font, and em.
4. If all the text is marked with a presentational element then determine if the text might be better marked as a header.

Expected Result

1. All p elements are not used as headers.

Failed Result

1. Remove the p element and replace it with the appropriate header element.

Examples

Pass Examples

Paragraph with unmarked text.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/xhtml; charset=UTF-8" />
<title>OAC Testfile - Check #82 - Negative</title>
</head>
<body>
<p>This is a regular paragraph</p>
</body>
</html>

Fail Examples

Paragraph with all text marked as "strong".
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/xhtml; charset=UTF-8" />
<title>OAC Testfile - Check #82 - Positive</title>
</head>
<body>
<p><strong>Looks like a header</strong></p>
</body>
</html>

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